Taiwan has signed the joint declaration as a response to the 4 per 1000 Initiative action. The objective of this study is to assess the possibility to achieve the goal of increasing 4‰ of soil organic carbon (SOC) every year in Taiwan. First, the SOC in Taiwan has been estimated by the sum of content of SOC in different soil groups. Second, the carbon sequestration potential of different agricultural practices has been estimated by long term experiment. The assessed practices include livestock manure and bio-char application on farmlands, organic farming, orchard grass cultivation, and afforestation in the plain area. The results reveal the content of SOC in Taiwan is about 237 million Mg in 0-100cm depth. The bio-char application has the highest potential carbon sequestration among the practices. However, the total of the potential carbon sequestration cannot achieve the goal of the initiative by all of the practices. Moreover, the total carbon sequestration of current practices is much lower than the target. In the future, some other practices, such as intercropping, restore the degraded land, land use change, minimum tillage and humification of organic matter etc., might be improved to approach the goal of the initiative.