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  1. What needs to be estimated?  Carbon sinks, avoided carbon loss, GHGs emissions, and mitigation co-benefits, e.g. water and biodiversity conservation, to ensure benefits to farmers
  2. How well? Accuracy and uncertainty
  3. How to reduce risks of impermanence or non-performance  
  4. How to minimize costs (e.g. acceptable % of the total project budget spent on MRV, sufficient benefit to farmers) 
  5. Other considerations: Scalability needs, verification needs (e.g. first, second and third-party),  Frequency frequency of estimations  - , reporting requirements, timing needed to detect changes (e.g. usually > 5 years) and make payments.

D. Improving accuracy and uncertainty 


  1. Discounted carbon credits to account for impermanence and accuracy risks
  2. Buffers in carbon credits allocated
  3. Accounting at the landscape scale to spread risk over large areas. 
  4. Verification type and frequency (credibility highest with third-party)